Publications

Journals/Magazines Partners Date of Acceptance DOI Open Access Link Publisher Place Year Abstract Relevance to 5G-SOLUTIONS
P.-V. Mekikis, K. Ramantas, A. Antonopoulos, E. Kartsakli, L. Sanabria-Russo, J. Serra, D. Pubill, C. Verikoukis NFV-enabled Experimental Platform for 5G Tactile Internet Support in Industrial Environments IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, to appear.
CTTC
04/05/2019
IEEE
2019
ContentAs industries are under pressure for shorter business and product lifecycles, there is an extensive effort from the research community for novel and profitable automation processes. This effort has given rise to the 5G Tactile Internet, which is characterized by extremely low latency communication in combination with high availability, reliability and security. In this paper, we discuss the key technologies to support the Tactile Internet characteristics in industrial environments and, then, we showcase the implementation of a novel 5G NFV-enabled experimental platform. Given that ultra-reliable low-latency communications is crucial for the manufacturing process, we demonstrate that, in our setup, sub-millisecond end-to-end communication is attainable, proving the suitability of our platform for tactile Internet industrial applications.
VNF management for slicing techniques (WP6)
I. Sarrigiannis, K. Ramantas, E. Kartsakli, P.-V. Mekikis, A. Antonopoulos, C. Verikoukis, Online VNF Lifecycle Management in a MEC-enabled 5G IoT Architecture, IEEE Internet of Things Journal , to appear
CTTC
15/09/2019
10.1109/JIOT.2019.2944695
IEEE
2019
The upcoming fifth generation (5G) of mobile com- munications urge software defined networks (SDN) and network function virtualization (NFV) to join forces with the multi- access edge computing (MEC) cause. Thus, reduced latency and increased capacity at the edge of the network can be achieved, to satisfy the requirements of the internet of things (IoT) ecosystem. If not properly orchestrated, the flexibility of the virtual network functions (VNFs) incorporation, in terms of deployment and lifecycle management, may cause serious issues in the NFV scheme. As the service level agreements (SLAs) of the 5G applications compete in an environment with traffic variations and VNF placement options with diverse computing or networking resources, an online placement approach is needed. In this paper, we discuss the VNF lifecycle management challenges that arise from such heterogeneous architecture, in terms of VNF onboarding and scheduling. In particular, we enhance the intelligence of the NFV orchestrator (NFVO) by providing i) a latency-based embedding mechanism, where the VNFs are initially allocated to the appropriate tier, and ii) an online scheduling algorithm, where the VNFs are instantiated, scaled, migrated and destroyed based on the actual traffic. Finally, we design and implement a MEC-enabled 5G platform to evaluate our proposed mechanisms in real-life scenarios. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed scheme maximizes the number of served users in the system by taking advantage of the online allocation of edge and core resources, without violating the application SLAs.
VNF management for slicing techniques (WP6)
H.Chergui. and Ch. Verikoukis “Offline SLA-Constrained Deep Learning for 5G Networks Reliable and Dynamic End-to-End Slicing”, in IEEE JSAC, Vol 38, Issue 2, pp. 350-360, February 2020.
CTTC
6/11/2019
10.1109/JSAC.2019.2959186
IEEE
2020
In this paper, we address the issue of resource provisioning as an enabler for end-to-end dynamic slicing in software defined networking/network function virtualization (SDN/NFV)-based fifth generation (5G) networks. The different slices’ tenants (i.e. logical operators) are dynamically allocated isolated portions of physical resource blocks (PRBs), baseband processing resources, backhaul capacity as well as data forwarding elements (DFE) and SDN controller connections. By invoking massive key performance indicators (KPIs) datasets stemming from a live cellular network endowed with traffic probes, we first introduce a low-complexity slices’ traffics predictor based on a soft gated recurrent unit (GRU). We then build—at each virtual network function—joint multi-slice deep neural networks (DNNs) and train them to estimate the required resources based on the traffic per slice, while not violating two service level agreement (SLA), namely, violation rate -based SLA and resource bounds -based SLA. This is achieved by integrating dataset-dependent generalized non-convex constraints into the DNN offline optimization tasks that are solved via a non-zero sum two-player game strategy. In this respect, we highlight the role of the underlying hyperparameters in the trade-off between overprovisioning and slices’ isolation. Finally, using reliability theory, we provide a closed-form analysis for the lower bound of the so-called reliable convergence probability and showcase the effect of the violation rate on it.
VNF management for slicing techniques (WP6)
H.Chergui and Ch. Verikoukis, "Big Data for 5G Intelligent Network Slicing Management", to appear in IEEE Network Magazine
CTTC
12/01/2020
not available yet
IEEE
2020
Network slicing is a powerful tool to harness the full potential of fifth-generation (5G) systems. It allows verticals to own and exploit independent logical networks on top of the same physical infrastructure. Motivated by the emergence of the big data paradigm, this paper focuses on the enablers of big databased intelligent network slicing. The article starts by revisiting the architecture of this technology that consists of data collection, storage, processing, and analytics before it highlights their relationship with network slicing concepts and the underlying tradeoffs. It then proposes a complete framework for implementing big data-driven dynamic slicing resource provisioning while respecting service level agreements (SLAs). This includes the development of low-complexity slices’ traffics predictors, resource allocation models and SLA enforcement via constrained deep learning. The paper finally identifies the key challenges and open research directions in this emerging area.
VNF management for slicing techniques (WP6)
A. Antonopoulos, Bankruptcy Problem in Network Sharing: Fundamentals, Applications and Challenges, IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine, to appear
CTTC
24/03/2020
not available yet
IEEE
2020
Network sharing has been already adopted by mobile network operators as a reliable and effective countermeasure to the constantly increasing network cost. The introduction of the fifth generation (5G) mobile communications is expected to revolutionize the telecommunications world, however it also brings new challenges to the network sharing, as new technologies (e.g., network virtualization, cloud architectures, etc.) and types of resources (e.g., computation and storage) come to the fore. Despite their inherent differences, the common characteristic of the emerging resources is that they are limited and, in many cases, insufficient to cover the rising traffic demands. In this article, we highlight the equivalence between the distribution of a limited number of resources and the bankruptcy problem, where the demands of different agents over a given commodity exceed its total quantity. In particular, i) we review the fundamentals and existing solutions of the bankruptcy problem, ii) we provide potential appli- cations of this problem in mobile network sharing, and iii) we list challenges and open issues for the application of the bankruptcy game in the mobile communications domain. The main goal of our work is to identify new research lines that will foster the 5G network sharing.
Multi-tenancy and network sharing (WP6)
E. Tangari, C. Occhipinti, L.. Briguglio, "Close-The-Loop Model: Social Acceptance of Technology for Sustainability", in ERCIM News no.121, pp. 26-27, April 2020
CEL
13/04/2020
https://ercim-news.ercim.eu/en121/special/close-the-loop-model-social-acceptance-of-technology-for-sustainability
ERCIM EEIG
2020
This paper describes a model to assess the social acceptance of disruptive technologies, and specifically 5G, with the goal of enabling and accelerating innovation and sustainability.
Social Acceptance of 5G Technology (WP8)
A. Carnevale, C. Occhipinti, E. Tangari, L. Briguglio, "L’origine e i limiti del dibattito politico sul 5G", in Euractiv, July 2020
CEL
07/09/2020
EURACTIV Italia
Italy
2020
This paper describes a set of argomentations that are used in public debats on 5G technology, such as health, politics and perception. An analysis of these argumentations and their causes is performed, as well as impacts on social acceptance of 5G technology.
Social Acceptance of 5G Technology (WP8)
Conferences (Target: 20) Partners Date of Acceptance DOI Open Access Link Publisher Place Year Abstract Relevance to 5G-SOLUTIONS
A. Di Giorgio, A. Giuseppi, R. Germanà, F. Liberati, Decentralised Model Predictive Control of Electric Vehicles Charging , in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems Man, and Cybernetics (IEEE SMC), 6-9 October 2019, Bari, Italy
CRAT
23/06/2019
10.1109/SMC.2019.8914040
IEEE
Bari, Italy
2019
This paper presents a decentralised control strat-egy for the management of simultaneous charging sessionsof electric vehicles. The proposed approach is based on themodel predictive control methodology and the Lagrangiandecomposition of the constrained optimization problem whichis solved at each sampling time. This strategy allows thecomputation of the charging profiles in a decentralised way,with limited information exchange between the electric vehicles.The simulation results show the potential of the proposedapproach in relation to the problem of shaving the aggregatedpower withdrawal from the electricity distribution grid, whilestill satisfying drivers’ preferences for charging.
L. Sanabria-Russo, L. Righi, D. Pubill, J. Serra, F. Granelli, C. Verikoukis, LTE as a Service: leveraging NFV for realising dynamic 5G network slicing , in Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference (IEEE GLOBECOM), 9-13 December 2019, Waikoloa, HI (USA).
CTTC
18/07/2019
IEEE
Waikoloa, HI (USA)
2019
Advances in virtualisation technology have reached the mobile networking domain. Network Functions Virtualisation Management and Orchestration (NFV MANO) as proposed by ETSI and realised via Opensource MANO (OSM) allows sharing or partitioning a fairly generic pool of hardware into virtual compute, network and storage resources among differentiated services. A direct consequence of this is a dramatic reduction in CAPEX/OPEX, but also the possibility of instantaneously deploy network services across one or several Mobile Network Operaators’ (MNO) infrastructure. This work demonstrates how the upcoming fifth generation (5G) of mobile communications envisions NFV MANO for instantiating network services, including Core Network components, and wireless SDN controllers for enforcing end-to-end QoS policies via network slices that span from the radio access segment to the backend packet network.
Was related to the orchestration of the vEPC and services slices on top of a ETSI NFV specifications-compliant testbed, leveraging open source tools, such as ETSI OSM, and OpenAir Interface for the vEPC in the context of WP1
G. Kollias, A. Antonopoulos, "Joint Consideration of Content Popularity and Size in Device-to-Device Caching Scenarios" IEEE ICC, 7-11 June 2020, Dublin, Ireland.
CTTC
27/01/2020
not available yet
IEEE
Dublin, Ireland
2020
Content caching has been considered by both academia and industry as an efficient solution to tackle the problem of the back-haul becoming the bottleneck in the service of users in future heterogeneous cellular networks. Most of the related caching-oriented studies are based on the content popularity, overlooking the impact of content size on their analysis. In this context, this work studies content caching in an environment where cellular users are equipped with cache memories. In particular, we formulate the content caching as an optimization problem, where the objective is to minimize the average download latency of popular videos through self-caching and device-to-device (D2D) caching and, consequently, increase the network throughput. In addition, in order to solve this problem in real-time scenarios, we introduce a low-complexity utility-based algorithm, which accounts for parameters such as the size and the popularity of the requested contents, as well as the density of the end users. Finally, we provide extensive simulation results that validate our analysis and prove that our innovative scheme outperforms other existing solutions.
Proposal of caching techniques in the context of WP6
H.Chergui and Ch.Verikoukis, "OPEX-Limited 5G RAN Slicing: an Over-Dataset Constrained Deep Learning Approach" IEEE ICC, 7-11 June 2020, Dublin, Ireland.
CTTC
27/01/2020
not available yet
IEEE
Dublin, Ireland
2020
In this paper, we investigate the concept of OPEXlimited resource provisioning as a key component in fifth generation (5G) radio access networks (RAN) slicing. The different RAN slices’ tenants (i.e. logical operators) are dynamically allocated isolated portions of physical resource blocks (PRBs), baseband processing resources and backhaul capacity. To achieve this dynamic resource allocation, we rely on key performance indicators (KPIs) datasets stemming from a live cellular network endowed with traffic probes. These datasets are used to train a new class of deep neural networks (DNNs) models where OPEX requirements, formulated as non-convex non-differentiable violation rate constraints, are also dataset-dependent. The designed constrained DNNs are then optimized via a non-zero sum two-player game strategy. In this respect, we highlight the effect of the different hyperparameters on the respect of the OPEX limitations, while ensuring a dynamic RAN resource orchestration that follows the slices’ traffics trends.
VNF management for slicing techniques (WP6)
I. Markopoulos, A. Di Giglio, B. Altman, H. Losenthagen, A. Antonopoulos, C. Verikoukis, S. Canale, M. Grandi, S. Zemouri, "5G-SOLUTIONS Analysis of Living Labs and KPIs Definition Methodology" in Proceedings of European Conference on Networks and Communications (EuCNC), 16-17 June 2020, Dubrovnik, Croatia.
Forthnet, Telecom Italia, LiveU, Telenor, CTTC, A2T, IRIS, IBM
18/04/2020
not available yet
IEEE
Dubrovnik,Croatia
2020
The scope of this paper is to provide an analysis of the 5G-SOLUTIONS Living Labs (LLs), the associated use cases, as well as the requirements and the target Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) definition methodology that will set the benchmarking for the actual measurements.
R. Germanà, F. Liberati and A. Di Giorgio, "Decentralized Model Predictive Control of Plug-in Electric Vehicles Charging based on the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers," 2020 28th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (MED), 16-18 September 2020, Saint-Raphaël, Nice, France.
CRAT
16/04/2020
10.1109/MED48518.2020.9183137
IEEE
Saint-Raphaël, Nice France
2020
This paper presents a decentralized Model Predictive Control (MPC) for Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) charging, in presence of both network and drivers' requirements. The open loop optimal control problem at the basis of MPC is modeled as a consesus with regularization optimization problem and solved by means of the decentralized Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). Simulations performed on a realistic test case show the potential of the proposed control approach and allow to provide a preliminary evaluation of the compatibility between the required computational effort and the application in real time charging control system.
Control based techniques for UC 2.2 and 2.3 (LL2)

Technical Articles/Policy briefs

Title Journal/Magazine Involved Partner(s)
A new Horizon, by Baruch Altman https://www.tvbeurope.com/business/tvbeurope-march-2020-issue-now-available
TVB Europe , Mar 2020
LiveU